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StudyOnResurrections

StudyOnResurrections

STUDY ON THE RESURRECTIONS

TEXT: Matthew 27:52-54 "And the graves were opened; and many bodies of the saints which slept arose, and came out of the graves after his resurrection, and went into the holy city, and appeared to many. Now when the centurion, and they that were with him, watching Jesus, saw the earthquake, and those things that were done, they feared greatly, saying, Truly this was the Son of God."

 

COMMENTARY excerpts from BIBLE-HUB

 

Geneva Study Bible

And the {r} graves were opened; and many bodies of the saints which slept arose, (r) That is to say, the stones broke apart, and the graves opened themselves to show by this act that death was overcome: and the resurrection of the dead followed the resurrection of Christ, as the next verse indicates Mt 27:53.

 

Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary

52. And the graves were opened; and many bodies of the saints which slept arose These sleeping saints (see on [1377]1Th 4:14) were Old Testament believers, who according to the usual punctuation in our version were quickened into resurrection life at the moment of their Lord's death, but lay in their graves till His resurrection, when they came forth. But it is far more natural, as we think, and consonant with other Scriptures, to understand that only the graves were opened, probably by the earthquake, at our Lord's death, and this only in preparation for the subsequent exit of those who slept in them, when the Spirit of life should enter into them from their risen Lord, and along with Him they should come forth, trophies of His victory over the grave. Thus, in the opening of the graves at the moment of the Redeemer's expiring, there was a glorious symbolical proclamation that the death which had just taken place had "swallowed up death in victory"; and whereas the saints that slept in them were awakened only by their risen Lord, to accompany Him out of the tomb, it was fitting that "the Prince of Life should be the First that should rise from the dead" (Ac 26:23; 1Co 15:20, 23; Col 1:18; Re 1:5).

and went into the holy city that city where He, in virtue of whose resurrection they were now alive, had been condemned.

and appeared unto many that there might be undeniable evidence of their own resurrection first, and through it of their Lord's. Thus, while it was not deemed fitting that He Himself should appear again in Jerusalem, save to the disciples, provision was made that the fact of His resurrection should be left in no doubt. It must be observed, however, that the resurrection of these sleeping saints was not like those of the widow of Nain's son, of Jairus' daughter, of Lazarus, and of the man who "revived and stood upon his feet," on his dead body touching the bones of Elisha (2Ki 13:21) which were mere temporary recallings of the departed spirit to the mortal body, to be followed by a final departure of it "till the trumpet shall sound." But this was a resurrection once for all, to life everlasting; and so there is no room to doubt that they went to glory with their Lord, as bright trophies of His victory over death.

The Centurion's Testimony (Mt 27:54).

Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary

27:51-56 The rending of the veil signified that Christ, by his death, opened a way to God. We have an open way through Christ to the throne of grace, or mercy-seat now, and to the throne of glory hereafter. When we duly consider Christ's death, our hard and rocky hearts should be rent; the heart, and not the garments. That heart is harder than a rock that will not yield, that will not melt, where Jesus Christ is plainly set forth crucified. The graves were opened, and many bodies of saints which slept, arose. To whom they appeared, in what manner, and how they disappeared, we are not told; and we must not desire to be wise above what is written. The dreadful appearances of God in his providence, sometimes work strangely for the conviction and awakening of sinners. This was expressed in the terror that fell upon the centurion and the Roman soldiers.....

 

People's New Testament

27:52 The graves were opened. The convulsions of the earth would naturally roll the stones from the doors of the sepulchers.

The saints which slept arose. Who is not stated, or whether their bodies returned to the grave again. Their rising was a testimony that the death of Christ is life to the saints.

Pulpit Commentary

Verse 52. - The graves (the sepulchreswere opened. The earthquake tore away the stones that closed the mouths of many of the adjacent tombs. This and the following fact are mentioned only by St. Matthew. Many bodies of the saints which slept (??? ????????????, who had fallen asleeparose. ....... but we may well believe that at this great crisis the Lord, who is the Resurrection and the Life, willed to exemplify his victory over death. and to make manifest the resurrection of the body, and this he did by releasing some saintly souls from Hades, and clothing them with the forms in which they had formerly lived, and permitting them to show themselves thus to those who knew and loved them. Of the future life of these resuscitated saints we know nothing, and will not presumptuously venture to inquire. When they have demonstrated that the sting was now taken from death, that the power of the grave was broken, that men shall rise again with their bodies and be known and recognized, they pass out of sight into the unseen world, and we can follow them no further.

 

Scofield Reference Notes

[4] graves

That these bodies returned to their graves is not said and may not be inferred. The wave-sheaf Lev 23:10-12 typifies the resurrection of Christ, but a sheaf implies plurality. It was a single "corn of wheat" that fell into the ground in the crucifixion and entombment of Christ Jn 12:24, it was a sheaf which came forth in resurrection. The inference is that these saints, with the spirits of "just men made perfect" Heb 12:23 from Paradise, went with Jesus Eph 4:8-10 into heaven.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Many(bodies).

Isaiah 25:8 He will swallow up death in victory; and the Lord GOD will wipe away

Isaiah 26:19 Your dead men shall live, together with my dead body shall they arise.

Hosea 13:14 I will ransom them from the power of the grave; I will redeem them

John 5:25-29 Truly, truly, I say to you, The hour is coming, and now is, when

1 Corinthians 15:20 But now is Christ risen from the dead, and become the first fruits

slept.

Daniel 12:2 And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake,

1 Corinthians 11:30 For this cause many are weak and sickly among you, and many sleep.

1 Corinthians 15:51 Behold, I show you a mystery; We shall not all sleep, but we shall

1 Thessalonians 4:14 For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so them also

1 Thessalonians 5:10 Who died for us, that, whether we wake or sleep, we should live together

 

Wesley's Notes

27:52 Some of the tombs were shattered and laid open by the earthquake, and while they continued unclosed (and they must have stood open all the Sabbath, seeing the law would not allow any attempt to close them) many bodies of holy men were raised, (perhaps Simeon, Zacharias, John the Baptist, and others who had believed in Christ, and were known to many in Jerusalem,) And coming out of the tombs after his resurrection, went into the holy city (Jerusalem) and appeared to many - Who had probably known them before: God hereby signifying, that Christ had conquered death, and would raise all his saints in due season.

 

Yomi Falade's notes on the Resurrections:

Matthew 27: 51-53.  v51 And behold, the veil of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom; and the earth shook and the rocks were split. v52 The tombs were opened, and many bodies of the saints who had fallen asleep were raised; v53 and coming out of the tombs after His resurrection they entered the holy city and appeared to many.

From Lexical Aids to the New testament, the Greek word egeiro  (aorist indicative passive) used for the saints arising, is used here for the dead recalled to life or who rise to new life. This passive is used for to rise again, ...always refers to the resurrection of the body. The aorist indicative "does not specify the relative time of the action to the time of speaking. It is final in duration.

The word egersis (noun from egeiro) means Resurrection...

Unlike the raising of Lazarus, Mary and Martha's brother, the Jerusalem saints' and Jesus' resurrections are the permanent type. The saints' and Jesus' resurrections were only made manifest to the world on the third day. They were invisible for most of the three days, and visible for some of the third day. Their existence transcended the realms of time, space and material.  So that, death may be shown to have no power over Jesus at any time ( Acts 2:24, I Cor 15:54-55), the two resurrections may have taken place immediately after Jesus breathed his last, and their manifestation to the world taken place much later. Jesus did not appear after his resurrection to anyone but believers, and even then, in short durations of time. Can we say, therefore, that he resurrected only on those time durations that he appeared to disciples? Can we say also that he is not resurrected because we don't now see him? Resurrection is eternal, final act. Its manifestation to the children of men is now transient until the appointed time of the universal Resurrection when it will be, by God's appointment, shown to be permanent.

This is the witness of Stephen in Acts 7:55-56, shortly after Jesus' ascension, International Versions " But Stephen, filled with the Holy Spirit, looked straight into heaven and saw the glory of God and Jesus standing at the right hand of God. He said, "Look! I see heaven opened and the Son of Man standing at the right hand of God!"

Hear the continued witness of Dr. Luke, the gospel evangelist, in the beginning of the book of Acts 1:3,
NET Bible "To the same apostles also, after his suffering, he presented himself alive with many convincing proofs. He was seen by them over a forty-day period and spoke about matters concerning the kingdom of God."

Hear the witness of Apostle Paul in Romans 1:4, New Living Translation "and he was shown to be the Son of God when he was raised from the dead by the power of the Holy Spirit. He is Jesus Christ our Lord," and in Ephesians 2:6 "For he (God) raised us from the dead (along) with Christ and seated us (together) with him in heaven because we are united with Christ Jesus."
 
Aramaic Bible in Plain English, "And he has raised us up (together) with him and seated us with himself in Heaven in Yeshua The Messiah."

New International Version, Colossians 3:1,4 "Since, then, you have been raised with Christ, set your hearts on things above, where Christ is, seated at the right hand of God... When Christ, who is your life, appears, then you also will appear with him in glory."

In the book of Hebrews it is written: World English Bible, "Women received their dead by (a) resurrection. Others were tortured, not accepting deliverance, that they might obtain a better resurrection."

Finally, the witness of Jesus himself on the position of the saints of the same or similar resurrection, in his revelation of heaven to John on the island of Patmos, Revelation 20:4-6, "Then I saw thrones, and they sat on them, and judgment was given to them. And I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded because of their testimony of Jesus and because of the word of God, and those who had not worshiped the beast or his image, and had not received the mark on their forehead and on their hand; and they came to life and reigned with Christ for a thousand (heavenly) years.  The rest of the dead did not come to life until the thousand (heavenly) years were completed. This is the first resurrection. Blessed and holy is the one who has a part in the first resurrection; over these the second death has no power, but they will be priests of God and of Christ and will reign with Him for a thousand (heavenly) years."

What do we conclude from the foregoing cited texts?
1. That many Jerusalem saints who had slept in the Lord, resurrected as Jesus did and showed themselves to their kin, confirms that event. That Stephen saw Jesus standing at the right hand of God in heaven, and the many convincing proofs recorded by Dr Luke and other evangelists further confirm the resurrections.
2. If some believers were raised along with Jesus at his resurrection, as first fruits, it is conceivable that all believers will be raised, sooner than later. Hence, Paul wrote that (a) believers are raised along with and are seated together in heaven with Jesus, and (b) believers should set their minds on things in heaven where Christ is seated at the right hand of God, thus confirming the present position of believers.
3. Believers, setting their hearts on things of heaven, should, like those saints reported in the book of Hebrews to have been tortured, always desire such a better resurrection.

The above facts should be the core of the faith in UNION with Christ and the surety of a better resurrection, together in glory with Christ Jesus.

To be mentioned is the derived confirmation of the actuality of the Jerusalem saints' and Jesus' resurrections as seen in 2 Timothy 2: 17, where Hymenaeus and Philetus, in view of those events, were reported to have preached that the resurrection had already taken place.
Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary ..."They did not deny the resurrections, but they corrupted that true doctrine", by asserting that another resurrection will not occur. Scripture holds the contrary, a universal harvest resurrection will happen as surely as its firstfruits had appeared. 1 Corinthians 15:21 "But Christ has indeed been raised from the dead, the firstfruits of those who have fallen asleep.  For since death came through a man, the resurrection of the dead comes also through a man."

 

Matthew 27:54

Now when the centurion, and they that were with him, watching Jesus, saw the earthquake, and those things that were done, they feared greatly, saying, Truly this was the Son of God.

 

Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary

54. Now when the centurion the military superintendent of the execution,

and they that were with him watching Jesus, saw the earthquake or felt it and witnessed its effects,

and those things that were done reflecting upon the entire transaction,

they feared greatly convinced of the presence of a Divine Hand,

saying, Truly this was the Son of God. There cannot be a reasonable doubt that this expression was used in the Jewish sense, and that it points to the claim which Jesus made to be the Son of God, and on which His condemnation expressly turned. The meaning, then, clearly is that He must have been what He professed to be; in other words, that He was no impostor. There was no medium between those two. See, on the similar testimony of the penitent thief "This man hath done nothing amiss" [1378]Luke 23. 41.

The Galilean Women (Mt 27:55, 56).

Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary

27:51-56 The rending of the veil signified that Christ, by his death, opened a way to God. We have an open way through Christ to the throne of grace, or mercy-seat now, and to the throne of glory hereafter. 

Pulpit Commentary

Verse 54. - The centurion, and they that were with him. The officer with the small body of soldiers appointed to perform and take charge of the Crucifixion. St. Matthew relates the impression which these events made upon the soldiers' minds. Saw those things that were done. Instead of this reading, which has high authority, Alford, Tischendorf, Westcott and Hort read, "that were being done," as the Vulgate, quae fiebant. This would point especially to the loud cry, in accordance with the words of St. Mark, "saw that he so cried out, and gave up the ghost." But there is no sufficient reason for altering the Received Text; and plainly it was not merely the closing incident that affected the soldiers, but the whole course of events which they witnessed. They saw the darkness, the earthquake, the rending of the rocks, the Divine meekness of the Sufferer; they heard his last words, his loud cry, and marked his patient death. All these things contributed to their awe and fear. They feared greatly. This crucified Man must be something more than human, for all these wonders to accompany his death: will he not visit upon us our part in his crucifixion? Have we nothing to fear from his vengeance? Some such course their apprehensions may have taken. But they learned something beyond selfish dread of possible danger. Truly this was the Son (????, anarthrous, Son) of God; or, according to St. Luke, "Certainly this was a righteous Man." They recognized his innocence, and acknowledged that he suffered unjustly. What the centurion meant (for the words appear to have been his) by calling him "Son of God" is more doubtful. It may have been on his lips merely an affirmation that Jesus was holy and beloved by God; but more probably it meant much more than this. He knew that Christ claimed to be the Son of God, and in this hour of overwhelming awe he felt that the claim was just, whatever it might mean. This crucified Person was at least a hero or a demigod, or that which the words would imply in a Jewish sense, though he knew only imperfectly what was signified thereby. Tradition affirms that the centurion's name was Longinus, that he became a devoted follower of Christ, preached the faith, and died a martyr's death.

 

Excerpts from The Orthodox Church in America

The Mission of The Orthodox Church in America, the local autocephalous Orthodox Christian Church, is to be faithful in fulfilling the commandment of Christ to Go into all the world and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit

 

Martyr Longinus the Centurion, who stood at the Cross of the Lord

The Holy Martyr Longinus the Centurion, a Roman soldier, served in Judea under the command of the Governor, Pontius Pilate. When our Savior Jesus Christ was crucified, it was the detachment of soldiers under the command of Longinus which stood watch on Golgotha, at the very foot of the holy Cross. Longinus and his soldiers were eyewitnesses of the final moments of the earthly life of the Lord, and of the great and awesome portents that appeared at His death. These events shook the centurion's soul. Longinus believed in Christ and confessed before everyone, Truly this was the Son of God (Mt. 27:54).

According to Church Tradition, Longinus was the soldier who pierced the side of the Crucified Savior with a spear, and received healing from an eye affliction when blood and water poured forth from the wound.

After the Crucifixion and Burial of the Savior, Longinus stood watch with his company at the Sepulchre of the Lord. These soldiers were present at the All-Radiant Resurrection of Christ. The Jews bribed them to lie and say that His disciples had stolen away the Body of Christ, but Longinus and two of his comrades refused to be seduced by the Jewish gold. They also refused to remain silent about the miracle of the Resurrection.

Having come to believe in the Savior, the soldiers received Baptism from the apostles and decided to leave military service. St Longinus left Judea to preach about Jesus Christ the Son of God in his native land (Cappadocia), and his two comrades followed him.

The fiery words of those who had actually participated in the great events in Judea swayed the hearts and minds of the Cappadocians; Christianity began quickly to spread throughout the city and the surrounding villages. When they learned of this, the Jewish elders persuaded Pilate to send a company of soldiers to Cappadocia to kill Longinus and his comrades. When the soldiers arrived at Longinus's village, the former centurion himself came out to meet the soldiers and took them to his home. After a meal, the soldiers revealed the purpose of their visit, not knowing that the master of the house was the very man whom they were seeking. Then Longinus and his friends identified themselves and told the startled soldiers to carry out their duty.

The soldiers wanted to let the saints go and advised them to flee, but they refused to do this, showing their firm intention to suffer for Christ. The holy martyrs were beheaded, and their bodies were buried at the place where the saints were martyred. The head of St Longinus, however, was sent to Pilate.

Pilate gave orders to cast the martyr's head on a trash-heap outside the city walls. After a while a certain blind widow from Cappadocia arrived in Jerusalem with her son to pray at the holy places, and to ask that her sight be restored. After becoming blind, she had sought the help of physicians to cure her, but all their efforts were in vain.

The woman's son became ill shortly after reaching Jerusalem, and he died a few days later. The widow grieved for the loss of her son, who had served as her guide.

St Longinus appeared to her in a dream and comforted her. He told her that she would see her son in heavenly glory, and also receive her sight. He told her to go outside the city walls and there she would find his head in a great pile of refuse. Guides led the blind woman to the rubbish heap, and she began to dig with her hands. As soon as she touched the martyr s head, the woman received her sight, and she glorified God and St Longinus.

Taking up the head, she brought it to the place she was staying and washed it. The next night, St Longinus appeared to her again, this time with her son. They were surrounded by a bright light, and St Longinus said, Woman, behold the son for whom you grieve. See what glory and honor are his now, and be consoled. God has numbered him with those in His heavenly Kingdom. Now take my head and your son's body, and bury them in the same casket. Do not weep for your son, for he will rejoice forever in great glory and happiness.

The woman carried out the saint's instructions and returned to her home in Cappadocia. There she buried her son and the head of St Longinus. Once, she had been overcome by grief for her son, but her weeping was transformed into joy when she saw him with St Longinus. She had sought healing for her eyes, and also received healing of her soul.


Saint Longinus
Feast day: March 15
(Patron of: the blind and people with poor eyesight, of labor, of power, and of good discernment)

Saint Matthew the Evangelist, in describing the passion of the Lord Jesus Christ, says: "The centurion and the men with him who were keeping watch over Jesus feared greatly when they saw the earthquake and all that was happening, and they said, 'Truly this was the Son of God!'" (Matthew 27:54). According to Church Tradition, Longinus was the soldier who pierced the side of the Crucified Savior with a spear. Longinus was chief of the soldiers who were present at the Crucifixion of the Lord on Golgotha. The legend of St. Longinus states that having been wounded in a past battle, he was blind in one eye. He was healed when he pierced the side of Jesus with his spear and some of the blood and water from Jesus fell into his eyes. Longinus was also the chief of the watch that guarded the tomb. When the Romans and the elders in Jerusalem learned of the Resurrection of Christ, they bribed the soldiers to spread the false news that Christ did not resurrect, but rather that His disciples stole His body. They also tried to bribe Longinus, but he did not allow himself to be bribed. Having come to believe in the Savior, Longinus received Baptism from the apostles, and decided to leave military service. St Longinus secretly left Judea to preach about Jesus Christ the Son of God in his native land (Cappadocia), and two of his comrades followed him. The fiery words of those who had actually participated in the great events in Judea swayed the hearts and minds of the Cappadocians; Christianity began quickly to spread throughout the city and the surrounding villages. After that, he withdrew to a nearby village on the estate of his father. Even there, however, he was not left in peace. Hearing that he was in Cappadocia, Pilate dispatched a company of soldiers to Cappadocia to kill Longinus and his comrades. St. Longinus foresaw the approach of his executioners and went out to meet them. He brought them to his home, not telling them who he was. He was a good host to the soldiers, and soon they lay down to sleep. But St. Longinus stood up to pray, and prayed all night long, preparing himself for death. In the morning, he called his two companions to him, clothed themselves in white burial clothes, and instructed the other members of his household to bury him and his companions on a particular small hill. He then went to the soldiers and told them that he was that Longinus whom they were seeking. The soldiers were perplexed and ashamed, and could not even contemplate beheading Longinus, but he insisted that they fulfill the order of their superior. Thus, Longinus and his two companions were beheaded. The soldiers took Longinus's head to Pilate, and Pilate gave orders to throw the martyr's head on a trash-heap outside the city walls.

At that time, a certain blind widow from Cappadocia arrived in Jerusalem with her son to pray at the holy places, and to ask that her sight be restored. After becoming blind, she had sought the help of physicians to cure her, but all their efforts were in vain. The woman's son became ill shortly after reaching Jerusalem, and he died a few days later. The widow grieved for the loss of her son, who had served as her sighted guide. St Longinus appeared to her in a dream and comforted her. He told her that she would see her son in heavenly glory, and also receive her sight. He told her to go outside the city walls and there she would find his head in a great pile of refuse. Guides led the blind woman to the rubbish heap, and she began to dig with her hands. As soon as she touched the martyr's head, the woman received her sight, and she glorified God and St. Longinus. Taking up the head, she brought it to the place she was staying and washed it. The next night, St Longinus appeared to her again, this time with her son. They were surrounded by a bright light, and St Longinus said, Woman, behold the son for whom you grieve. See what glory and honor are his now, and be consoled. God has numbered him with those in His heavenly Kingdom. Now take my head and your son's body, and bury them in the same casket. Do not weep for your son, for he will rejoice forever in great glory and happiness." The woman carried out the saint's instructions and returned to her home in Cappadocia. There she buried her son and the head of St Longinus. Once, she had been overcome by grief for her son, but her weeping was transformed into joy when she saw him with St. Longinus. She had sought healing for her eyes, and also received healing of her soul. St. Longinus' relics are now in the beautiful church of St. Augustine, in Rome, not far from the body of Saint Monica. His Lance is contained in one of the four pillars over the altar in the Basilica of St Peters in Rome. Bernini also created huge niches in the four piers of the crossing at St. Peters. Each niche holds a colossal statue, over 30 feet high. In the first pier on the right is the statue of St. Longinus, who pierced the side of Jesus, from which blood and water flowed.

Saint's Prayer

O Saint Longinus, you were chosen as the venerable gate keeper and was granted the gift of discernment by the Lord; an eyewitness of God's miracle who glorified the resurrected Christ. To your death, you remained Christ's soldier and for Christ you gave your head. Pray for us, therefore, O St. Longinus so that being inspired by your example and assisted by your prayers, we may live a holy life, die a happy death, and reach eternal life to praise and thank God in heaven with you. I ask you to pray to God this special request if it be His holy will. Amen

Special Thanks to: This article incorporates text from publications now in the public domain. "Lance, The Holy", The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII . New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1912 (The original edition of this work contains a copy of the manuscript mentioned in the text which shows St. Longinus piercing the side of Christ.) (Ecclesiastical approbation. Nihil Obstat. June 1, 1911. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor. Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York.) Baring-Gould, The Lives of the Saints, vol. III (Edinburgh) 1914Artwork information: Works of art by: James Tissot  Data entered by: Ed McCoy on 2012-03-05.

 

 

 CONCLUSION to "STUDY ON RESURRECTIONS"

Jesus demonstrated, by his teaching and preaching of the kingdom of God and by his own resurrection and the resurrection of the first fruits of the saints, by his incontrovertible appearances for forty days afterwards and by his glorious ascension, that the glorious purpose of mankind is to be raised in the eternally immortal and incorruptible companionship with the Risen Lord.

The song writer writing in the manner of I John 3: 1 - 3 says:
"Beloved now are we the sons of God. For it does not yet appear what it shall be. But we know, when He shall appear, we shall be like Him, for we shall see Him as He is. Everyone who thus hopes in Him purifies himself even as He is pure."

Romans 8:29-30, "for those whom he foreknew, he also predestined to be conformed to the image of the Son of God,............ them he also glorified."

II Timothy 1:9-10, "..God, who saved us and called us with a holy calling, not by virtue of our works but by virtue of His own purpose and the grace which he gave us in Christ Jesus ages ago, and which (grace) has manifested through the appearing of our Savior Christ Jesus, who abolished death and brought life and immortality to light through the gospel."

I end by saying that God's purpose for humanity is that we will be counted worthy by His grace through faith in our Lord Jesus Christ to attain the Resurrection life as previewed for us by Jesus himself in his resurrection appearances and his marvelous ascension and position at the right hand of God, the Father.

This is the purpose of God as stated in Ephesians 1:9-10, " For He has made known to us in all wisdom and insight the mystery of His will, according to His purpose which He set forth in Christ, as a plan for the fullness of time, to re-unite under one head, all things in Christ, things in heaven and things on earth."

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